Gardeners began to cultivate apple trees more than one century ago. Modern breeding has made it possible to improve old varieties and create new ones. One of the most popular apple trees among gardeners is the Iyulskoe Chernenko variety. Versatile in use and unpretentious in cultivation, the July Chernenko will adorn any garden.
Description of the apple-tree variety Julskoe Chernenko
Before purchasing a seedling for planting in your area, you need to study all the characteristics of the selected apple hybrid. First of all, attention is paid to the description of the yield, the palatability of the fruit, fruiting and the general characteristics of the tree.
The Iyulskoe Chernenko variety belongs to apple trees with an early ripening of fruits. The hybrid was bred by the breeder S. F. Chernenko. In honor of him, a new variety was named. To obtain a hybrid, the breeder crossed the varieties Anis Aly and Papirovka.
Tall tree. The main trunk reaches a height of 5 to 7 cm. Due to its height, the tree is noticeably different from other apple trees.
The crown is rounded. The thickening is average. The branches grow upward. The leaves are small, light green in color, pointed in shape, carved along the edges. The tip is sharp.
Ripe apples of medium size. The shape of the fruit is round, the skin is ribbed. The skin tone is light green, with a slight raspberry blush and rich red stripes all over the skin.
A waxy bloom is visible on the peel. Some fruits have a seam like the parent variety Papirovka.
Characteristics of July Chernenko
When studying the characteristics of a tree, attention is paid to crown formation, pollination of inflorescences, winter hardiness and taste of fruits.
Every year in spring and autumn, the crown is cut off. If you do not prune the tree, then soon it will grow, and fruiting will decrease. Formative pruning is carried out in the spring. And in the fall, diseased and damaged branches are cut off.
The apple variety July Chernenko is self-infertile. Other varieties of apples are planted next to the tree. In addition, you need to attract bees to the garden. For example, spray the inflorescences with a sugar or honey solution.
We increase winter hardiness
First of all, in order to increase the winter hardiness of any fruit tree, you need to mulch the soil every year. In addition, it is important to regularly apply mineral and organic fertilizers.
Apple tree resistance to diseases and pests
The apple hybrid Iyulskoe Chernenko is resistant to the main diseases of fruit trees, except for scab.
Fruit taste and smell
The pulp of ripe apples is light green in color, juicy, with a sweet and sour aftertaste. The aroma is pronounced. Apples ripen in the last days of July and until the first decade of August.
Vitamins and microelements of apple
Apples contain a large amount of iron and ascorbic acid. In addition, the pulp is rich in B vitamins, magnesium, phosphorus and other microelements useful for the human body.
The Central and Volga regions are suitable for growing the Iyulskoe Chernenko variety. Due to its frost resistance, the tree is suitable for cultivation in Siberia.
Life span and fruiting
The tree's lifespan is no more than 35 years. Even if the tree grows longer, the yield will decrease. Fruiting begins in the 4-5th year after planting the seedling in the ground.
Planting an apple tree
Planting a tree is an important stage during which the future yield of the apple tree is laid. Young immature seedlings need increased care.
Preparatory work includes:
- Selection and preparation of soil.
- The choice of a seedling for planting.
- Preparing a seedling for planting.
Preparatory work takes at least 3 weeks.
Choosing a landing site
The variety is unpretentious to the planting site. The tree grows well in sun and shade. But still, it is desirable to give preference to sunny areas.
The soil is prepared several weeks before planting the seedling. The soil is dug up and fertilized. Wood ash, rotted compost and nitrogen-containing fertilizers are added to the soil. Then the fertilizers are mixed with the soil and left for 2-3 weeks.
Digging a hole
A pit for planting a seedling is dug on the day of planting an apple tree.
For planting, choose only healthy seedlings without signs of damage. The roots should be whole and firm.
Preparing a seedling for planting
Before planting in the ground, the root system of the seedling is placed in preparations that accelerate growth.
Distance between seedlings
July Chernenko is planted in groups of 3 seedlings. The distance between trees is at least 5 m.
When can you plant a tree?
The most favorable period for planting is autumn, from the last days of September to mid-October.
Disembarkation: what for what
Stages of planting a seedling:
- Dig a hole and fill it with fertilizer, leave for 2-3 weeks.
- A few hours before planting, soak the rhizome in a growth activator.
- The pit must be at least 70 cm deep.
- Place the seedling in the hole, spread the roots and cover with soil.
- Tamp the soil near the trunk.
At the end of planting, pour plenty of warm water over the tree. Drive a stake next to the trunk and tie an apple tree to it.
How to grow an apple tree
Apple tree care includes:
- Watering and loosening the soil.
- Crown formation.
- Prevention of diseases and insects.
You can increase the fruiting of an apple tree with the help of proper care..
Crown formation by pruning
Cut off the root from the 2nd year after disembarkation. Cut off dry and damaged branches. Also shorten the branches of last year's growth.
Flowering and pollination
To increase pollination, other varieties of fruit trees are planted next to the apple tree. In addition, bees are attracted by spraying the inflorescences with a honey solution.
During the season, the apple tree is watered 4 times. First time in the spring. The second time after the appearance of the kidneys. The third time after flowering and the fourth - with the beginning of fruit collection. In the fall, watering is stopped.
Protecting the tree from pests and diseases
As a prophylaxis, apple trees are sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux liquid every spring.
Top dressing of an apple tree
The first top dressing is applied in the spring after the snow melts. Use nitrogen-containing fertilizers. The second time apple trees are fed during bud formation with phosphorus and potassium. The third dressing is applied during the period of fruit formation. The last time apple trees are fed before freezing with organic fertilizers.
The apple tree is mulched in autumn with peat, humus or straw. The mulch layer should be at least 20 cm.
What pollinator varieties are needed
The best pollinating trees include apple varieties:
- White filling.
- Grushovka Moscow.
Apple trees are planted at a distance of 4-5 m from each other.
Fruiting begins in mid-July and lasts until August. Apples ripen in large quantities.
The propagation of an apple tree occurs with the help of layering, cuttings, seeds and grafting. The easiest way to grow an apple-tree Julskoe Chernenko using cuttings or planting an adult seedling.
The first apple-tree harvest of Iyulskoe Chernenko is harvested in late July. Apples are harvested as soon as they ripen. Due to the severity of the fruit, the branches often break.
Harvesting begins in July. It is advisable to pick apples from the trees immediately, without waiting for them to fall from the tree themselves. Apples are also harvested from the ground, but most of these fruits turn out to be wormy.
The harvested crop is stored in a dark cool room at temperatures up to +15 degrees. With proper storage, the fruits are stored until late autumn. Apples are laid out on a flat surface in one layer. Regularly they need to be examined and those fruits that have begun to rot should be thrown out.
But it's best to eat apples as soon as possible after harvest, or use them for cooking.
The Iyulskoe Chernenko variety does not belong to the winter variety, therefore it cannot be stored for a long time even under ideal conditions.
Due to their dense skin, apples lend themselves well to transportation over long distances. The fruits are suitable for sale in markets and shops.
Ripe apples are versatile to use. They are eaten fresh as the fruit pulp is juicy and sweet. Apples are also suitable for making pies, pies and other pastries. Jam, jams, jam, compotes are made from apples.