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Description and characteristics of the Spartak apple variety, planting and growing features


Possessing excellent characteristics, the Spartak apple variety has proven itself well among gardeners. The tree easily tolerates hot summers with temperatures up to 55 ° C, and also feels great at low winter temperatures. The culture patiently endures dry winds and dust storms. Even in unfavorable conditions, it pleases summer residents with abundant harvests of aromatic fruits.

General description of the variety

The culture refers to fruit crops of an intensive type. Fruiting in 3-4 years. Some specimens delight with delicious apples for the second year.

External description

The tree is medium-sized. The bark of the plant is brown. Branches from the trunk branch off at an acute angle, which is often the cause of fractures. Therefore, the plant needs regular crown formation. Shoots are smooth, brown-red, straight.

Apple tree height

The tree grows in height no more than 6 meters. The crown of the plant is wide, dense, round-pyramidal.

Leaves

The leaf plates of the culture are green, wavy, narrowed at the base. The leaves are oval-oblong. The tip is curled and elongated. Weak pubescence on the back of the leaves.

Tree fruit

The main characteristics of the fruits of the culture:

  • medium-sized fruits;
  • weight 90-130 grams;
  • there are large specimens weighing 300 g;
  • rounded;
  • the peel is shiny, of medium thickness, strong;
  • yellow in color with bright red merging stripes;
  • the stalk is medium in length;
  • medium-sized calyx;
  • bulbous seed nest, medium size;
  • the pulp is fine-grained, medium in density, tender;
  • the taste is sweet and sour.

Technical maturity occurs at the end of summer or in the first decade of September. Consumer and commercial properties are high. Spartak apples belong to the table purpose. Suitable for fresh consumption, for juicing and for culinary purposes.

Root system

The root system of the culture is strong and powerful. When buying, you should choose plants with a root length of no more than 40 centimeters.

Rootstocks

The apple variety Spartak is grown on various rootstocks. Summer residents often confuse a columnar apple tree with a dwarf one. To avoid mistakes when buying plants, you need to understand the differences.

On a dwarf rootstock

The culture is undersized. An adult plant reaches a height of 3 meters. Has a spreading crown. Benefits:

  • ease of care;
  • decorative look;
  • early maturity;

Due to the root system located at the soil surface, the crop is suitable for areas where groundwater is close.

Columnar

The main feature of the plant is its appearance. Culture has one strong stem. Lateral fruit branches are short. The fruits are located along the trunk - this helps to save space on the site and, if necessary, plant more fruit trees.

Benefits of culture:

  • the plant bears fruit from the first year;
  • gives a high yield;
  • frost resistance.

The disadvantages include a short fruiting period. The culture pleases with a high-quality harvest for only 15 years, after which the tree is replaced with another.

Characteristics of Spartak apple trees

When buying high-quality planting material, the tree bears fruit from the 4th year. The plant is recommended for growing in areas with cold climates.

Features of crown formation

The crown of the plant is dense. The branches are constantly and rapidly growing at different angles, which leads to their breaking. Therefore, the culture must constantly form a crown.

Pollination

The culture belongs to self-pollinated varieties. Cross-pollination is required for better fruit set.

Fruit

The fruit is juicy and strong. They have high taste. Delicious jam is made from apples.

Harvest characteristics

Spartacus is a high-yielding plant. An adult tree pleases gardeners with a bountiful harvest, which in a prolific year is about 100 kilograms.

How the Spartak apple tree tolerates low temperatures

The frost resistance of the culture is average. Requires proper care. When the temperature drops to -25 ° C, it freezes.

Diseases and pests

Possible ailments:

  • Scab. Usually manifests itself in dysfunctional years with heavy rains. The disease spreads through the foliage and bark of the culture.
  • Cases of plant disease with cytosporosis and fruit rot are rare.

With timely preventive measures, the risk of plant diseases is reduced to zero.

Taste qualities

Experts highly appreciate the taste of apples. On a 5-point scale, they were assigned 4.5 points.

The composition of vitamins and minerals in the Spartak apple

The composition includes:

  • copper;
  • potassium;
  • Apple acid;
  • chlorine;
  • wine acid;
  • nickel;
  • iron;
  • lemon acid;
  • manganese;
  • chlorogenic acid;
  • ursular acid;
  • calcium;
  • cobalt;
  • molybdenum;
  • valeric acid;
  • magnesium;
  • iodine;
  • propionic acid;
  • zinc;
  • isobutyric acid;
  • vanadium;
  • phosphorus;
  • unsaturated fatty acids;
  • boron;
  • rubidium;
  • vitamins (A, C, E, K, H);
  • fluorine;
  • aluminum;
  • sodium;
  • vitamins B (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9);
  • chromium;
  • sulfur.

Depending on the area of ​​growth of the culture and climatic conditions, the amount of microelements and vitamins in the fruits is different.

Planting seedlings

Before purchasing planting material, it is necessary to study in detail the rules and methods of planting a plant.

Landing in the ground

Before digging a planting hole, it is necessary to thoroughly clear the space of weeds, pebbles and stumps. The place will need to be well lit and protected from the winds, and the groundwater should be deep.

Choosing seedlings

The key to yield is a properly selected planting material. When buying a culture, pay attention to:

  • Root system. It should be well developed. The length of the roots is not more than 40 centimeters and not less than 35 centimeters.
  • The thickness of the trunk, which ranges from 2 to 2.5 centimeters.
  • Branches. Their number should be 1-3. The length is about 50 centimeters.
  • The height of the trunk. The ideal size is 80-90 centimeters.
  • Age. Two-year-olds take root best and bear fruit faster.

After choosing seedlings, it is necessary to plant them correctly and provide proper care.

Determining the landing site

The culture is unpretentious to soils. It grows equally well in different regions. In order for a young tree to develop correctly and gain growth strength, it is required to regularly feed.

At what distance to plant seedlings

Before planting, the crown of an adult plant is taken into account. In order for the apple tree to receive a sufficient amount of light and nutrients throughout its life, it is necessary to plant crops at a distance of 5 meters from each other.

Landing dates

It is allowed to plant twice a year: in the fall, in the spring. If the region is characterized by early autumn frosts, then planting work is recommended in the spring, before bud break.

In the fall, the culture is planted in the ground after all the foliage on the trees has fallen, but before the onset of frost.

Disembarkation process step by step

In order for the plant to take root faster, simple recommendations are followed when planting:

  1. Dig a hole in 3 weeks. The minimum size is 70 centimeters in width and depth.
  2. Mix the top layer of soil with compost and humus. Pour into a hole and pour 30 liters of water. Cover with foil.
  3. After 3-4 weeks, make a depression in the center to fit the size of the plant's root system. Fill with 15 liters of water.
  4. Spread the roots. This will help the plant develop better. Place in prepared well.
  5. The root collar should be 6 centimeters above the soil level. Bury the roots thoroughly and compact the soil.
  6. Make a hole near the trunk. This will help improve watering on hot days.
  7. Drive a peg next to the plant and tie a seedling to it. Such an event will help the tree to hold firmly and withstand the winds.

The culture is watered abundantly and the trunk circle is mulched.

How to grow an apple tree

For the first few years, caring for a crop consists of several stages that must be strictly observed in order to obtain a bountiful harvest.

Tree care

Regularly monitor the cleanliness around the plant. Weeds take away heat and light from the apple trees, so they must be removed in a timely manner.

Due to the average winter hardiness, care is taken to ensure that the culture remains alive after the winter period.

After the temperature drops below +15 ° C, the trunk circle is mulched with a layer of humus. It helps to retain heat and does not release it from the ground. The tree trunk is covered with mineral material.

Pruning and shaping the crown

Formative pruning is carried out for the first three years. Remove branches growing at right angles. From 4 years old, only weak and dried parts are cut off. The procedure helps to rejuvenate the culture and makes it possible to obtain bountiful harvests of large fruits.

Leaving during flowering

During flowering, they are regularly examined for the presence of pests. If detected, they are removed manually. It is not recommended to spray with chemicals, as they harm beneficial insects that pollinate the plants.

Watering

Watering the crop should be regular. Carried out 4 times a month.

Protection against diseases and pests

For prevention:

  • planted on heights;
  • for air circulation, the crown is regularly thinned out;
  • in the autumn, they dig up the trunk circle;
  • in the spring, they make a trapping belt from pests;
  • regularly spray the culture with special preparations.

If you follow these simple guidelines, the plant will grow strong and healthy.

Top dressing of an apple tree

The best fertilizer is horse manure, which is recommended to be fed 3 times per season.

Pollinating varieties

To increase the number of ovaries, pollinating apple trees are planted nearby:

  • Umanskoe;
  • Idared;
  • Ruby Dookie.

Only 30% of ovaries are formed without pollinators.

Fruiting time

Fruiting in 3-4 years. Refers to early maturity.

Selection

The first apples of the Spartak variety were received in 1945. The culture originated from the Skryzhapel and Sharopay apple trees.

Harvesting and storage

The fruit is removed when the surface turns into an intense red hue. If the stripes stand out strongly, then the apples need to hang for another couple of weeks.

Harvesting the harvest

Fruits ripen unevenly. The first copies can be enjoyed in early September. The rest ripen for about 3 more weeks.

Fruit storage

The marketable and transportable type of fruits retains 2 months. After that, their condition deteriorates significantly, but apples are suitable for food until February.

Using

The fruits are suitable for:

  • fresh consumption;
  • canning;
  • juice production;
  • culinary purposes.

To help the gardener

There are nuances in the rules for growing crops in different regions.

Geography of cultivation of the variety

Due to its drought tolerance and ability to withstand heat and cold, it is suitable for many climatic zones.

Moscow suburbs

In order for the seedlings to take root better, they are whitewashed with lime twice a year. For the winter period, they must cover and mulch the space around the trunk.

Middle zone of Russia

In this region, the plant is often attacked by scab. To prevent an ailment for the purpose of prevention, the culture is treated with fungicides.

If the trunk is damaged by rodents, the damaged areas are disinfected with iron sulfate.

Southern regions

In order for the tree to take root better, it is fertilized with a solution of sodium fertilizer and urea. Based on the characteristics of the soil in this region, to prevent the fracture of the central conductor, a support is built that does not allow the plant to sag.

Ural

The soil of the Urals is strong and solid. Therefore, the aeration of the culture roots is increased. Several times per season, the space around the trunk is loosened and the topsoil is broken.

In the Kirov region

To improve the properties of the land, the near-trunk circle is sown with creeping bent grass. To avoid drying out the soil, compost and humus are placed around the apple tree.

Other regions

In other regions, caring for a crop does not require additional recommendations and does not differ from caring for other fruit crops.

Purchase of seedlings

It is necessary to purchase planting material only in proven places. The plant must have a strong root system and no signs of disease.


Watch the video: How To Grow Apple Trees From Cuttings (June 2021).