Peonies are very popular among gardeners for their decorative properties. Bright lush flowers can decorate any garden area from May to mid-July. Peony seedlings are not cheap, however, if desired, flowers can be propagated independently. Let's figure out how to properly reproduce peony bushes.
Description and features of the plant
Peony is a perennial herb belonging to the monotypic genus. In nature, there are about forty varieties of plants. The herbaceous peony is characterized by brightly fragrant flowers that bloom in May and bloom for six weeks..
Dividing the bush
It is recommended to separate the peony bush every four to five years, since the old roots of the unseparated bush are intertwined and tightly connected with fabric, which makes it difficult to dig out their roots. The bush is divided from mid-August to mid-September. A small trench should be dug around the bush and the bush should be shaken until it crawls out of the ground. The bushes should be separated with a stake.
How to propagate by layering
Reproduction by layering is one of the simplest methods. This method is suitable for a five to eight year old bush. At the beginning of spring, the earth is shoveled from the bush, exposing the buds. On top you need to put a box without a bottom. It needs to be filled with a mixture of garden soil, compost and sand. Then, as the shoots grow, compost, garden soil and manure are added to the box in layers. The buds of the plant are pinched, preserving the leaves. In the fall, we remove the box with the earth, cut off the rooted shoots and transplant it to the garden bed.
With air ducts
Reproduction by air layers is carried out in May, before the peony flowers bloom. On the shoot, it is necessary to make incisions and wrap them with moss and film, and then bandage them. Roots are formed at the end of summer.
Cutting is a simple and affordable method for propagating peony bushes. A branch for growing a new plant should not contain a bud.
It is easiest to prepare the cuttings after the peony has flowered, during formative pruning. It is necessary to first remove all faded flowers and carefully cut off the leaves on which there are spots from diseases. We form an even ball from a bush.
How to cut
After pruning, select a stem that has not bloomed before. Divide the cut off twig into parts so that there are two leaves on each. We make the lower cut at the cutting oblique, two centimeters lower than the sinus is located. We make the cuts with a sharp secateurs. We make the upper cut straight, two centimeters above the sheet. The bottom sheet should be cut to one centimeter, the green leaves should be cut in half.
Before planting the cutting, it is necessary to punch its lower part from bottom to top with the sharp tip of a knife, and process the cutting with a solution for root growth. This is necessary in order for the plant to take root better. A Heteroauxin solution is suitable as a stimulant: 2 milliliters of the drug per liter of water.
It is recommended to keep the cuttings in the solution for sixteen hours.
The landing site should be in the shade. Large shrubs are suitable for shelter from the sun's rays.
The soil for planting should be moist all the time and not dry out. If you are planting flowers in a cool region, you can set up a small greenhouse.
We dig a groove in the ground and fill it with water. The grooves should be spaced from each other at a distance of fifteen centimeters. We insert the plants and compact the soil. Water the soil again and sprinkle with earth. In extreme heat, you can cover the cuttings with a thin protective material.
The best time to propagate a peony by grafting is at the end of summer. In this case, ten to fifteen centimeter root segments are used as a stock. The roots must be dug out of the ground and kept in a cool place for a couple of weeks. For the scion, young shoots of this year are used.
Wedge cut method
A wedge-shaped cut is made on the stock. The bobbin is trimmed at the bottom to form a wedge shape. It is necessary that both surfaces are smooth. The graft is inserted into the rootstock and tied with electrical tape. Outside, it is coated with a garden varnish. After grafting, the plants can be planted in the soil, but it is better to first keep them in a greenhouse for several weeks to protect the young plant from direct sunlight. Moreover, it must be watered regularly and thoroughly.
When using this method, a diagonal cut is made on the scion. The groove is cut in the same way, at the same angle. The root and stem are combined and coated with pitch.
How to collect and store seeds
To collect peony seeds, you must leave the flowers on the bush until the end of summer. Then at the end of August, in place of the flowers, a box with seeds is formed, representing pods connected in the form of a star. When the pods are opened, they are cut off and the seeds are removed. Full seeds of a shiny, light brown color are suitable for planting.
Features of the reproduction of the tree peony
The tree species of peony can be propagated by various methods: by layering, cuttings, seeds, division, and also by grafting.
To reproduce a peony using the layering method, you need to select an shoot at the bottom of the bush, cut it and press it to the ground, and then cover it with soil. It is best to do the procedure at the very end of the spring season. In the fall, the shoot must be separated from the bush and transplanted into a separate place. Instead of soil, you can use moss to press the shoot, or wrap the shoot with a thin, durable film.
Cuttings are made in July. Shoots with buds and leaves must be separated from a healthy bush. The shoots must be placed a few centimeters in a peat and sand substrate. The leaves on the shoot are pre-cut in the middle. The cuttings can be covered with plastic cups or bottles to protect them from the scorching sun. In the fall, the plants are transplanted into separate pots and stored at home until spring.
Seed propagation is used mainly by professional breeders, and this method is not suitable for the ordinary gardener, due to the large labor and time costs. The seeds themselves must be of the first freshness. When growing, it is necessary to strictly observe the regime of processing plants with heat and cold. Peonies grown from seeds germinate after two to three years, and bloom only in the sixth or seventh year of life.
By dividing the bush
This method is suitable for 5 year old shrubs. It should be held in August or September. The bush needs to be dug out, its root system should be rinsed and divided into several parts. Each part should contain at least three shoots. Separation points should be treated with potassium permanganate and wood ash. Before planting in the soil, the roots are dipped in a clay solution.
Peonies should be propagated by grafting at the end of summer. To do this, you need to take a part of the root and make an incision on it. A scion in the form of a young stem is inserted into the incision. The joints are wrapped with electrical tape and processed with garden varnish. A few weeks before planting, the workpiece is placed in a container with sawdust, covered with a strong film.
When and how to replant
Peonies can be replanted in spring, summer or fall. In the spring, after the snow has melted, replanting should be done only if absolutely necessary. Moreover, in the spring, you should not divide the bush, as you can damage the plant. The normal time for a transfer in the Middle Lane is mid-April.
In the summer, the transplant should be done at the end of August, after the heat subsides. Rinse the roots from the soil, inspect for diseases and, if necessary, divide. After dividing, the parts of the bush planted at the end of August will have time to take root before frost.
In September or October, it is also possible to replant and divide the bushes. This is the most optimal and safest period for transplanting a peony, so this procedure is best done in the fall.
However, it should be remembered that the plant should be transplanted no later than thirty days before frost to give it time to take root. The specific date should be selected based on the characteristics of the onset of cold weather in your region.