When choosing varieties of garden blueberries, it is necessary to take into account their characteristics, climatic conditions in the growing region and the type of soil. An integrated approach to choosing a variety of berries will help you grow a good harvest and not face common problems.
General description of garden varieties
Most garden blueberry varieties are tall shrubs with many branches. Plants differ from other berry crops by accelerated growth and rapid growth of shoots. The size of the fruit depends on the specific variety. Garden blueberry taste predominantly sweeter than wild blueberry.
For each crop, there are individual cultivation methods aimed at obtaining a large harvest. Blueberry agricultural technology involves the implementation of a set of measures, including soil preparation and fertilization, planting according to a specific technology, further care and proper berry picking.
How to distinguish between garden and wild blueberry species?
Garden and wild blueberries have a number of distinctive characteristics. Including:
- wild berries grow in swampy areas, and the cultivated form needs soil with high acidity;
- the fruits of the wild blueberry are small and oval, and the home berry is large-fruited, with fleshy pulp;
- garden berry bushes reach 2.5 m, and wild ones spread along the surface of the earth.
Early ripe berries should be planted in regions with a short warm summer. Thus, it will be possible to harvest the crop before the onset of the first autumn frosts.
The early Patriot variety has short bushes with active branching and strong vigor. The yield from each bush is 7-9 kg. Fruits up to 19 mm in diameter are valued for their juicy pulp and high taste.
Stable and unpretentious to care for, the Northland variety is a low-growing bushes that yield 4-5 kg of harvest. The berries are medium in size, with a thin skin.
Bushes of the Chippeva variety reach a height of 0.8-1 m. The yield indicator with proper care is 2-2.5 kg. The berries are large, light blue in color, resistant to frost and temperature extremes.
The high-yielding Spartan variety begins to harvest in the middle of summer. It is possible to collect up to 6 kg from one bush. The taste of the berries is tart-sweet, the size is 16-18 mm in diameter.
New Zealand variety The river ripens from the second decade of July. Fruiting is regular, the yield reaches 10 kg per bush. The berries have a firm pulp and a pronounced aroma.
Sierra blueberries produce large, versatile berries. The bushes are vigorous, about 2 m high, spreading. The leaves are large, in autumn they acquire a red tint, which gives the plantings of the Sierra variety decorative properties.
The medium-sized Alvar variety bears large fruits with firm and sweet flesh. The berries ripen in early August, and fruiting lasts 2-3 weeks. The crop is suitable for long-term freezing and fresh storage.
Early maturing Sunrise bears fruit in mid-summer. Fruiting lasts for several weeks. The yield is 6-8 kg. The period of greatest productivity falls on the 5-6th year of development.
Bushes of the Rubel variety are erect, dense and tall. The yield from each bush is 5-7 kg. Berries with a diameter of 12-15 mm have a flattened shape and dense flesh. The fruits are sweet, with a slight sourness and a pronounced aroma.
Bluett's blueberries ripen in the second half of July. From the moment of flowering to the formation of fruits, 42-50 days pass. The berries are dark blue in color, with a slight waxy coating, spherical in shape.
The common variety Chauntecleer is suitable for planting in summer cottages and on an industrial scale. The height of the bushes reaches 1.6 m. The ripening of the crop occurs amicably, and the collection does not drag on for a long period.
Goldtraube blueberries yield 2.5-3.5 kg per bush. Goldtraub berries are light blue, tasty and sweet, frost resistant. The ripening period falls on the first days of August.
One of the sweetest varieties Erliblu yields 4-7 kg of fruit per bush. Plants are medium-sized, 1.2-1.8 m high. Erliblu does not need frequent pruning, which simplifies maintenance.
Bluegold blueberries are included in the category of tall plantings. Plants have decorative properties and are covered with pale pink flowers during the flowering period.
Bushes of the Blurei variety are erect, spreading, with a height of 1.2 m. Blueberry Bluria regularly brings a good harvest within 5-8 kg per bush. The variety propagates easily with lignified cuttings.
Plants of the Centecleer variety with ascending branches reach a height of 1.6 m. Flowering begins after spring frosts. The fruits are medium-sized, sweet, with a slight sourness.
The self-pollinated Jersey variety yields a crop in mid-August. It is possible to collect 4-6 kg of berries from one bush. Fruits are pale blue, round in shape, with dense pulp.
Variety Herbert is a powerful shrub up to 2.2 m high. Blueberries multiply easily and ripen in the amount of 5-9 kg per plant. After ripening, the fruits do not crumble, and the skin does not crack.
Blueberry Bluecrop is valued for its high yield, which reaches 9 kg per planting. The fruiting period stretches from late July to early September. From the moment of flowering to the ripening of the first berries, it takes about 55 days.
Medium ripening varieties
Mid-ripening varieties ripen after the early ones, which allows to extend the term of berry consumption. Such varieties should be grown in places with a temperate or warm climate.
The Denis Blue variety with an average ripening period is distinguished by friendly fruiting. The yield indicator is high and reaches 7 kg, subject to agrotechnical practices. Harvesting occurs in mid-July - early August.
Tall blueberries Legacy bears 12 kg of fruit. The bushes are dense, upright growing, reaching a height of up to 2 m. The crop has a universal purpose, including fresh consumption, processing and long-term storage.
The Kaz Plishka variety, bred by Polish breeders, has tough shoots and spherical fruits. The berries begin to ripen in unison in the second half of July. The pulp is aromatic, for dessert purposes. The crumbling rate of plantings is minimal, which allows for mechanized collection.
The yield of the Polaris variety is 6-7 kg. The taste is sweet, balanced, with pronounced sourness. The bushes are compact, low. Blueberry Polaris is suitable for cultivation in summer cottages or on an industrial scale.
Productive, self-fertile variety Nord is a compact bushes no more than 1 m high. The berries are large, with a diameter of 18-20 mm. The ripening period occurs at the beginning of July.
Blueberry Legation consistently yields 4.5-6 kg per plant. The ripening process lasts from mid-July to early August. The berries are small, with high taste characteristics. The crop is suitable for processing, storage and fresh consumption.
The mid-season North Blue hybrid is valued for its abundant harvest and exquisite taste. Plants are winter hardy and suitable for planting in harsh climates. Care for this variety is standard.
The narrow-leaved blueberry variety has low bushes, up to 0.5 m. The variety is distinguished by its ability to form new shoots from dormant buds. Plants are decorative and form inflorescences in spring, immediately after the snow melts.
Perennial shrubs of XXL blueberries are adapted for growing in garden conditions in various climates. Large berries with a bluish bloom weigh 1 g each. The shape of the fruit is round, slightly flattened on both sides.
Variety Taiga beauty is universal for cultivation and is suitable for cultivation both in northern and southern regions of Russia. Thickened clusters with rounded fruits are formed on the bushes, which gives a decorative appearance.
Low-growing variety, bearing fruit weighing up to 1 g. Plants are erect, no more than 70 in height, with vertically forming branches. Putte is appreciated for its resistance to cold snaps, sweet taste and pronounced aroma.
Blueberry Bonus is included in the list of tall varieties with high resistance to cold weather. The berry bears fruit actively when grown on well-drained light soil.
The medium-sized Aino variety forms stocky and wide shrubs about 85 cm high. Flowering begins in early June. Fruiting takes 2-3 weeks. Berries have a universal purpose - they are suitable for fresh consumption and freezing.
The North Country variety, which needs pollination, yields in mid-July. The diameter of the berries varies between 10-15 mm, the shape is slightly flattened, the taste is sweet. The advantages include: resistance to frost and diseases, unpretentiousness to the type of soil, abundant yield.
The yield of the Bluejay variety reaches 6 kg, subject to proper care and a favorable climate. Ripening begins in mid-July and takes several weeks. Blueberries can be harvested mechanically.
The Darrow variety of Canadian origin produces large berries with a pronounced aroma and sweet taste. Growing in a well-lit area is required to get a good harvest.
The Hardible blueberry is a mid-ripening blueberry, ripening in the first decade of August. The yield indicator per season reaches 7-9 kg. Fruits are small, 15-16 mm in diameter. Average frost resistance, so shelter is required when grown in Belarus, central Russia and Siberia.
One of the most valuable varieties in the dessert category. Toro blueberries have a sweet taste and yield up to 9 kg of yield per mature shrub. According to the description, the variety is suitable for mechanized harvesting, but it is better to do the first harvest yourself. The purpose is universal - for processing, storage, fresh consumption.
The unusual Pink Lemonade variety has become widespread due to its pink fruits with a sweet and sour aftertaste. Pink Lemonade brings 3-4 kg of harvest per bush. Plants are often grown for decorative purposes.
The Elizabeth variety is characterized by erect bushes that reach a height of 1.8 m. The spreading branches of the plantations intertwine and form a dense crown. It is possible to harvest up to 5 kg of harvest from one plant.
Late varieties should be grown in regions with long warm summers. As a rule, the bushes grow and bear fruit best in the south of the country.
Bushes of the Nelson variety reach a height of 1.3-1.6 m. The shoots are powerful and tough, the shape of the plants is round and spreading. The yield is 5-6 kg.
A vigorous and spreading Berkeley variety suitable for individual and industrial cultivation. The bushes reach a height of 1.8-2.1 m and yield 4-8 kg of harvest. The fruits begin to ripen from mid-August.
Garden blueberry with the name Brigitte blue grows well in moist soil and sunny areas. Fruiting begins from the 4th year of life and is about 6 kg from each planting.
Boniface blueberries grow on tall bushes with strong, upright branches. The size of the fruit is medium or large, the shape is round. The ripening process begins at the end of July.
The Mider variety is valued for its active growth and increased resistance to pests and diseases. Shrubs up to 2 m high are grown as fruit and ornamental plantings.
Jorm shrubs reach a height of about 1.5 m. Fruits are juicy and large, ripen throughout August. The frost resistance of the variety is -27 degrees.
The Elliot variety, which brings up to 8 kg of yield, is valued for its amicable ripening, which begins from the third decade of August. Eliot's bushes are tall, upright, with vertically arranged branches.
Growing blueberries in the regions
The yield index and the specifics of the development of blueberry bushes are largely influenced by the conditions of the region. The climate and weather in a particular area, as well as the type of soil, often become important criteria when choosing a variety for growing.
In the North-West of the country, including the Leningrad Region, it is recommended to plant only early and medium ripening varieties. Restrictions are associated with short warm summers. Planting berries with a long ripening period can lead to the death of the crop due to the onset of frost.
Middle zone of Russia
In the middle lane, it is advisable to grow blueberries, which begin to bear fruit from the middle of summer. Experienced gardeners prefer new varieties, for example, Country, Rankokas, Finnish. This choice is explained by increased frost resistance, up to -30 degrees of frost.
Growing blueberries in the Urals is a common phenomenon among gardeners. The climate of the region is well suited for winter-hardy berry crops, which makes it possible to consistently receive a large harvest.
In Ukraine, blueberries grow in swampy areas and on scree. Gardeners are actively propagating culture in their summer cottages. The country's climate allows you to grow a large number of varieties and not face difficulties.
In most cases, gardeners grow mid-season varieties of blueberries in Belarus. The climatic conditions of the country provide an opportunity to have time to harvest the entire crop before the first autumn cold snap.
Planting garden blueberries
When planting seedlings, it is enough to follow a simple step-by-step instruction. It includes the following actions:
- Before planting, the roots of the seedlings are soaked in water for 10-20 minutes.
- A planting pit is dug at the site, the bottom of which is treated with peat or sawdust. Sulfur or malic acid is used to acidify the soil.
- Prepared seedlings are placed in the pits and the roots are gently straightened.
- The root collar is deepened by 5 cm.
The key to obtaining a healthy and large harvest is adherence to agricultural techniques and regular care of the plantings. Garden blueberries need basic care, which should include irrigation, fertilization, shrub formation, and preventive spraying against pests and diseases.
At the summer cottage, the bushes should be watered 2 times a week, spending a bucket of water for each plant. Irrigation is best done in the evening, after sunset. From the moment of fruiting and the formation of new flower buds, more abundant watering is allowed. Depending on the amount of precipitation and the rate of absorption of liquid by the roots of the plants, the frequency of irrigation can be adjusted. It is important to avoid a lack of water at the roots, as this can lead to drying out and a reduction in yield..
Fertilize berry crops from the second year of life.In the spring, the shrubs are fed twice with mineral fertilizers - when the buds swell and 1.5 months after the first application. In autumn, phosphate fertilizers are used, which the plants need after harvest.
It is also periodically required to acidify the soil. To do this, you can perform treatment with vinegar, citric or malic acid.
Shrub formation consists of removing old leaves, damaged and dry branches. It is recommended to prune the plantings in the spring, after the risk of recurrent frosts has disappeared. You can also prune in the fall 2-3 weeks before the onset of a cold snap. In the case of the autumn formation of young seedlings, it may be necessary to use a covering material.
The most common way to propagate a berry is to use lignified cuttings. For reproduction, shoots are harvested in winter when they are dormant. Annual shoots are ideal, which are tied in bunches and stored in the refrigerator or under the snow.
In the spring, cuttings no more than 15 cm long are cut from the harvested shoots.The lower cut is made oblique, and the upper cut is horizontal. Then the lower base is dipped in a growth stimulator and deepened into the ground in prepared beds. The rooting procedure is recommended to be carried out in greenhouse conditions.
Blueberry pests and diseases
Despite the resistance of blueberries to diseases, unfavorable environmental conditions or violation of the rules of care can provoke the development of infections. For berry crops, powdery mildew, gray rot, anthracnose and moniliosis are dangerous. It is possible to eliminate the consequences of diseases and reduce the risk of re-manifestation with the help of treatment with fungicidal preparations.
Among the harmful insects, blueberries are affected by moths, beetles, and leafworms. You can notice signs of a pest infestation by the appearance of spots and holes on the foliage and stem. In order to prevent the death of a large number of crops, you should regularly inspect the plantings and take protective measures immediately after the detection of parasites. Large insects can be harvested by hand, and spraying with insecticides is required to control the rest.