Farmers cannot always seek help from a veterinarian, so they must be able to independently inject cattle preparations intramuscularly, intravenously, subcutaneously and nasally. Since cows and calves are afraid of injections, the owner must act clearly, quickly and calmly, observing safety measures. Ignoring the rules for the preparation and conduct of the procedure is unacceptable, since a large animal in fright can injure itself and a person.
Are cows afraid of injections?
The cows do not understand that the owner is preparing to give them an injection, but they are frightened by incomprehensible and unusual actions performed by humans, as well as medical odors, especially the smell of alcohol. A frightened animal, with its size, can smash a stall, injure a farmer, a veterinarian, cattle in neighboring stalls. Due to sudden movements, the needle inserted into the body can break off, get stuck under the skin.
Therefore, before the procedure, the cow is fixed. The farmer must act quickly and confidently, inject the drug with a sharp movement, but carefully, while looking calm. The speed of action is important so that the pet does not have time to figure out what is happening.
To prevent the needle from breaking due to the sudden movement of the animal, it is inserted into the muscle perpendicular to the surface of the body. During the procedure, the owner should not shout at the cow, beat her. Before the injection itself, it is advisable to stroke the pet, turn to her in a quiet and affectionate tone.
What do you need?
To give an injection to a cow or calf, you need:
- disinfected needle;
- Prescribed drug or vaccine
- a cage for fixing the body or a machine for immobility of the animal's head.
The volume of the syringe depends on the dose of the drug, and the size of the needle depends on the size of the cattle, the place and method of administration. So, you can inject a calf with a 2.5 cm needle. It is better to inject the bull with an automatic veterinary syringe: this is a convenient option that allows the owner to stand at a sufficient distance from the pet.
Preparing the animal
On large farms, livestock is usually immobilized in a cage prior to vaccination. Or they fix the head in a machine fixed near the corral. In small farms, where there are no machines and cages for vaccination, you have to hold the cow with ropes. Several people hold the animal while the owner injects the drug. You can turn to horse breeders for help, they know how to make a lasso, throw it on livestock.
If the body of a cow is dirty, then it is washed with warm water and dried. The injection site is wiped with alcohol. The owner washes and disinfects his hands. The optimal injection site for a cow is the jugular vein in the neck. Less commonly, the injection is placed between the base of the tail and the pelvic bone.
Before using a medicine or vaccine, you must carefully read the instructions. Some veterinary drugs are supposed to be injected into specific areas of the body. In order to avoid mistakes, you should consult with your veterinarian, in which part of the body it is better to inject this or that medication.
Water, oil, and alcohol-based solutions are injected under the skin. The drug begins to act 5-20 minutes after the injection, this is faster than with an injection into the muscle. Subcutaneous injections are not painful for the cow. For injection, a site is chosen where the skin is folded, easily pulled with fingers, there are no large vessels, nerve nodes, bone and vein tissues nearby. The best options are stabbing in the neck, middle of the forearm, or dewlap.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
To inject a calf, a 1 cm needle is enough; for a subcutaneous injection of an adult cow, an instrument of 2.5 or 3 cm is required. The needle is inserted 2/3 of the length, it enters the subcutaneous fatty tissue.
Do a subcutaneous injection like this:
- Wipe the injection site with alcohol.
- Stretch the skin with your fingers.
- The needle is inserted at an angle of 30 ° to the body surface.
- The medicine is squeezed out.
- Take out the needle.
- The injection point is smeared with iodine.
Sick calves are injected into the abdominal cavity if subcutaneous administration is not applicable. Serous tissues in the abdomen have increased resorption, due to which a significant volume of fluid can be administered to a small animal, which is used for dehydration and dyspepsia. For calves under 3 days old, medications are placed in the hunger hole on both sides, and from 3 days of age - only on the right. The needle is inserted slowly, directed towards the middle of the abdominal cavity, slightly downward and backward at an angle of 50 °.
How to give an injection intramuscularly?
Emulsions, antibiotics, and formulations in the form of suspensions are put into the muscle. With the correct intramuscular injection, the drugs are quickly spread through the blood through the body. Do not inject into a point near which there are large vessels, nerve nodes, bone and cartilage tissue.
For an injection, an area with a thick muscle layer is chosen: the buttock, dewlap or triceps muscle of the shoulder. For an injection to an adult animal, a 4 cm needle with a sharply beveled end is taken, for an injection of a calf - 1 cm. The needle should not be crooked and blunt, otherwise the procedure will be painful and may cause a purulent inflammatory process.
An intramuscular injection is done as follows:
- The needle is brought to the body perpendicularly.
- Injected into muscle tissue 2/3 of the length.
- Pressing the plunger, the medicine is injected from the syringe.
- Remove the needle from the muscle.
- Lubricate the injection point with iodine.
If you need to inject two drugs, then after the first injection, the syringe is disconnected, the needle is left in the body. Take another syringe with the drug, attach it to the needle, squeeze out the solution.
Liquid preparations with high transparency are injected into the vein, which do not provoke clumping of red blood cells. Intravenous injections of cloudy solutions that form a precipitate are inadmissible. Intravenous infusions are used only in emergency cases: for example, with severe paresis, a tetanic attack in a cow, or with a serious electrolyte imbalance in a sick calf. For injection, you can use both a disposable syringe and a Bobrov unit. An injection is made into the jugular vein that runs along the neck. It is not difficult to find it: you need to raise the cow's head, tighten the skin on the neck. The largest bulging vessel under the skin is the jugular vein.
An intravenous injection of a cow is done as follows:
- Having found the jugular vein, squeeze it with your finger so that it swells. The filling is determined by touch. At low filling, the pressure force of the finger is reduced.
- The injection site is wiped with an antiseptic preparation.
- The needle is immersed in the body, pointing upwards at 45 °. Blood should come from the wound. If it does not go or goes in a weak trickle, then the needle either entered the wrong place, or did not pierce the vascular wall. Need to adjust the direction or depth of the needle.
- Hold the needle with your thumb and forefinger. Remove the finger, squeezing the vein.
- The medicinal solution is injected slowly.
- After the injection, the vein is squeezed again, the needle is pulled out.
- The injection point is rubbed with iodine.
An intravenous injection is more difficult for a cow to do than any other; if unsure, it is better to seek help from a veterinarian. The medicine immediately enters the bloodstream, it is unacceptable to exceed the dosage even minimally.
How to give a nasal injection (inject into the nose)
The procedure requires a nasal syringe with a plastic tip.
The owner must:
- It is good to fix the head of the animal.
- Take the medicine into the syringe.
- Insert the tip into the cow's nostril.
- Inject the medicine with rapid pressure on the plunger.
- Remove the tip. Repeat with the second nostril.
How to avoid mistakes
When injecting drugs to a cow, the farmer must not only monitor the safety of the animal's health and life, but also protect himself from injury and trouble when the pet is afraid of injections.
The owner must:
- To put an injection outside the cage where the animal is. Don't go inside.
- Do not insert your head or hand between the bars of the bounding cage. A cow that is afraid of being pricked may kick, resulting in severe injury or death for the owner.
- Do not be nervous, do not get angry during the procedure. The cow feels emotions.
- Do not use non-sterile, twisted, broken needles.
- Store medicines in the refrigerator or as directed.
- Disinfect needles after each use. Or throw it away.
- Do not use expired medications.
- Do not pour medicines into containers containing other solutions.
- Select the size of the syringe according to the dosage.
- Do not mix drugs. Take a separate syringe for each medication.
- Give injections according to the weight of the animal. The dosage is indicated in the instructions, how many milliliters should fall on a certain body weight.
- Heat solutions before use. The cow may be in shock from injecting a cold drug into a vein.
- Before injection, check for air in the syringe.
Injections to cows and calves are often given for both therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, so farmers need to know the injection technique, how to help the cow not to be afraid of the procedure. It is not difficult to give cattle injections, the main thing is to observe the dosage and sanitary standards.